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Search engine optimisation methods and the results of illegal optimisation

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illegal seo


For many companies, it is of great importance for their websites to be in the top rankings in user searches made in popular search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Bing and Yandex. According to researches, 70% of searches made by users on search engines consist of one, two or three words; About 60% of search engine users only examine the results on the first page, and 90% only on the first three pages, and click on the websites mentioned here. [1] Based on the results of this research, it can be understood how important it is to be on the first page of the search engine results and even in the first three rankings, especially for companies that offer their products and services, experience and work on their websites. However, how the ranking priority in these searches is achieved is of great importance in terms of the results that may occur. Search engine optimisation, which is used for this purpose, with its global name “Search Engine Optimisation” (“SEO”), has become an indispensable part of the advertising, promotion and marketing strategies of almost all companies today.

Today, most companies receive optimisation services from service providers in order to optimize their websites and to ensure that their websites are at the top of the results found by search engines in searches related to the content they offer. However, as we will mention in our article, it is important that the SEO techniques used by the companies providing SEO services are ethical, legal and in accordance with the guidelines of the relevant search engine, in terms of the results it may produce. Because a company that will receive optimisation service from an SEO company and is unaware of what unethical SEO methods can be used, may fall into the position of being damaged due to unethical techniques that the relevant service provider can use, and on the other hand, may face legal and criminal sanctions. The purpose of our article is primarily to inform the readers about what SEO is, what negative SEO techniques (black hat SEO) are, and what various consequences they can have, on the other hand, by raising the awareness of companies that will receive optimisation services from SEO companies, to take the necessary precautions at the contract stage and to ensure that they take the necessary precautions during the service period. To raise awareness in order to ensure that the necessary audits are carried out on the IT units and websites within their own companies.

What is Search Engine Optimisation?

Search engines are websites that aim to enable internet users to access the content they are looking for in the easiest and fastest way among billions of internet pages. [2] Although more Google and Google SEO Guidelines will be cited in the article due to its dominant position in the market, most search engines basically work in a similar way. As a result of a search made by users with a few words, the process of search engines consists of three basic stages: crawling, indexing and ranking. Search engine spiders (Spiders) or bots (Google bots; Yahoo Slurps; Bing MSNBots) crawl all the websites in the search engine, follow the links (links) between the sites and find the websites that contain the most relevant content for the search made in the search engine, including the redirected sites. they find. During this search and scanning, the spiders analyze the content, content titles, all kinds of words and phrases found on the websites, and the meta tags (metatags) in the HTML codes of the websites, in order to rank the “most related result with the searched”. they do. Meta tags are information placed in the HTML codes of websites in order to classify the scope of the website, to provide information about what content can be collected from the website and what the website offers to the user. In this way, although the meta tags do not appear on the website by themselves, they are found by a search engine that scans all websites containing a certain keyword, and the relevant website is listed among the results. [3] As a result of the aforementioned search scanning process, the websites that contain the keywords in the search made by the user and that are expected to offer the most relevant and satisfying content for the search are listed in the order of relevance predicted in the search results. As can be seen, the content offered by the websites, the words in the title and content, the information specified in the meta tag, and the referrals made from other websites to this site are all important in determining the search results and the ranking in the search results as a whole.

Going back to the purpose of the existence of search engines, we see that it is “the fastest delivery to users of the results that are most relevant to their searches and will most satisfy them”. The more satisfied users are with the content they find as a result of their searches, the more their trust in a particular search engine will increase. Assuming that the user searches with the right word/word combinations for the content they want to find, it cannot be said that a search engine, in which the most relevant result for the user’s search, appears on the third page, offers the most useful content to the user in the fastest way.

Essentially, search engine optimisation was not developed for the purpose of tricking the search engine (gaming Google); on the contrary, SEO aims to create the best user experience. (4) SEO ensures that the search engine traffic flows in the most positive way by matching the information users seek on the internet with all the content hosted on the websites, including meta tags, and the search engine spiders work in the most accurate way and ensure that the users reach the most accurate results in the shortest time. By making some changes in certain parts of the websites or meta tags with SEO, the spiders are convinced that the content on the website is the most relevant results for the user’s search, thus increasing the traffic density to the website. For this reason, it will be said that SEO is not a false advertising and marketing tool, on the contrary, it contributes to users’ access to the most accurate information as soon as possible thanks to healthy search engine optimisation, and on the other hand, it is an effective and important digital marketing tool in the promotion and development of companies.

Although search engines do not openly disclose their algorithms, there are some well-known methods for a website to rank well in search engine results. [4] All of the techniques developed for this purpose are called “search engine optimisation”, and websites organized with such techniques are called “optimized websites”.

At the beginning of the website optimisation techniques, the titles placed on the content on the websites are expressed with the most accurate words; Matching a word in the content title with the word in the user’s search helps the related website to rank higher. Google makes it clear to website creators that they must provide visitors with content related to the topic they specify in the title. [5] In other words, if the site owner is going to optimize the website with a tag or a certain word or phrase, the subject of the content presented on the website must be related to the relevant word or phrase. [6] There are many optimisation methods like this. The important thing is whether the optimisation methods are ethical, honest and legal. At this point, it would be appropriate to briefly explain SEO methods in global terms as “White Hat SEO” and “Black Hat SEO”.

White Hat SEO

White line SEO are optimisation techniques that are often used to speed up and improve the overall user experience. The aim here is not to deceive the search engine with some tactics, but to intervene in the course of search engine traffic with ethical and honest techniques, on the contrary, to ensure that the search engine traffic concentrates on the interests of the user. With ethical optimisation techniques, if the search engine directs the searcher to a certain page and the user is satisfied with the result, it essentially increases the reliability of this search engine. For this reason, ethical optimisation techniques are also supported by search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, as they increase the reliability and preferability of search engines. In particular, Google informs website owners about ethical SEO techniques and states that it supports search engine optimisation as long as content directly related to the words and tags embedded in the website or directly contained in the title or content is presented by following user-friendly strategies.

Black Hat SEO

Black hat SEO, on the other hand, refers to unethical interventions and techniques applied in order to rank the website at the top, and which are essentially prohibited in search engine user guides. Black hat SEO ensures that the website appears at the top of the results by deceiving search engine spiders (gaming the system) with changes made within the website or interventions made outside the website. Here, it would be appropriate to mention search engine advertising (search engine marketing, “SEM”). SEM is a paid advertising service provided by search engines. Collaboration with search engines for a fee is a system that allows the website to appear above the search results when the selected keywords are searched. If the domain belonging to another website or the brand or title of another company is selected as a “keyword”, unfair competition and trademark infringement can also be carried out through SEM.

Every website owner wants their website to be on the first page of Google as a result of the search; however, it is difficult to achieve this even if the most accurate and regular optimisation techniques are used in the long term. Most companies, who are not aware of this, can be deceived by the promises of service providers that introduce themselves as a top segment SEO service provider and guarantee to appear on the first two pages in Google, and can agree with a company that gives confidence that it will provide the most successful service to increase the recognition of their company and website. However, if the company uses black hat SEO techniques, the cost of this can come back to the owner of the company.

So what are the most commonly used black hat SEO techniques? Of course, in order to determine and prove whether such unethical optimisation techniques are applied or not, technical expert support should be received and because the techniques are dynamic, it is necessary to act extremely quickly in this process, but knowing some main techniques is important in terms of creating selective perception and awareness. These techniques are divided into on-site and off-site methods. On-site techniques are essentially the same as we just talked about in white line SEO techniques; such as changing and editing the content titles, sub-titles and texts on the site, hosting the most searched words and phrases within the site. However, what makes these techniques unethical is that in these optimized websites, the content that the user is looking for is not offered in any way.

With the method called keyword stuffing, a large number of words, phrases and tags are placed on the website to mislead the search engine that the content related to the user’s search is presented on this website. The search engine, which makes the search, crawling and result in the ranking according to the “relevance” ranking that the spiders predict and detect, may present the website, which does not provide any information about the subject, to the user on the first page. Since this situation also harms the reliability of the search engine and the aim of “providing fast and accurate information”, which should be the most basic function, it is also prohibited in the guides and terms of use of search engines. Google states that especially words and phrases that are repeated in a sentence or derived with affixes mislead the user if they do not express any meaningful information as a whole, and such optimisations are prohibited.

The meta tags we mentioned above are of great importance in terms of quickly listing the websites related to the searched words in the search results by making the search made in the search engine very easy. Meta tags, which define many aspects and content of the website, are included in the HTML code of the site and are detected by the search engine and direct the search engine according to the keywords it contains. Website owners are free to choose these tags as they wish. Meta tags, whose main purpose is to provide information about the website and its contents, have the feature of directing the search engine to a large extent in terms of finding a website related to the search topic and listing it in the search results as a result of a search with certain keywords. Website owners can freely set meta tags without any limitations; Sometimes, it causes very different keywords to be chosen among the titles, brands, domains of other companies without being related to the subject and content of the website, and the search engines are misled, causing irrelevant results to be displayed in the search results.

Another method, called duplicate content, is the tactic of copying content by partially or completely copying the content offered on another site and placing it on the targeted website. Copying content, like other unethical SEO methods, not only constitutes unfair competition but also violates copyrights in terms of copyrighted content and may lead to the responsibility of those concerned.

The cloaking method, on the other hand, is to present different content to website visitors than the content, words and tags offered to search engine spiders. An example of a cloaking system is writing text in white on a white background. Spiders and bots can detect the words, tags and links specified in these white texts that visitors cannot see, and make the ranking of the searched content according to all the content hosted on the website. For example, if we write word groups such as “patent, patents, patent right, infringement of a patent right, patent right in industrial property law, patent right in Turkish law” with white text colour on the white page where this article is read by our readers, although this text is not visible to you. It can also be detected by Google spiders and may cause you to be redirected to the page with this article in research you have done on patent rights.

Auto-generated content, on the other hand, is to create a new extension by copying some content from other websites based on the search for a certain word by placing automatic content and link-creating programs on websites, and essentially misleading the system even though no useful or new content is offered. Google warns website creators that they should not use such automatic results-generating programs and states that pages that use automatic content creation management in the videos they prepare for website guides and that do not offer any additional benefits are detected and blacklisted. In a video regarding this situation, Google gives an example of “resulting in a search on the harms of caffeine consumption by the user, as ‘there are no results for caffeine consumption on this site” on the listed website’.

Another example is the use of article spinning software. It is the rewriting of an article on another website by using an automated software program, instead of manually writing the article of a content, by replacing the original words with other words, so to speak, by “rotating”. As a result, the content produced in general is poor in terms of grammar, difficult to understand, perhaps even impossible to read, and consists of poor quality content.

The most common off-site SEO method is link building. All search engines, especially Google, accept links from one site to another as a vote given to that page. In particular, the fact that the link is given without any paid cooperation and taken from a reputable and reliable website provides a great advantage to the relevant website. The more such links given to the website, the higher the chance of that site to rank higher in search engines. [7] As a black hat SEO method, link building (backlink) can occur in a variety of ways. Agreements made in the form of “linking against a link” or providing direct links for a fee are the most common methods. In 2011, “Overstock.com”, which followed such an SEO strategy, offered discounts to school students and faculty in exchange for linking to overstock.com on the website of high schools and universities. Overstock.com, which was almost at the top of every search result such as “laptop” on Google until that time, can no longer even appear in the fifth-page results after the penalty it received from Google. [8] Again, on another website, especially forums or other websites where interactive participation of visitors is possible, sharing the link of the website to be redirected in a comment or embedding the link to be redirected in the comment is also a method applied. Here, too, the element that renders the method unethical and unlawful is that no useful content is presented on the redirected website, and users are manipulated.

Although the main methods used are listed, it should be noted that there are a wide variety of other black hat SEO methods, and today, as a result of developing technology every day, these methods will not remain in a limited number. Are such negative optimisation strategies prohibited in search engine guidelines or considered unethical simply because they mislead the search engines? No. Maybe a few years ago, at least in our country, it would have been excused not to approach this issue with the same sensitivity; however, in the information age and in a digital world where the internet is the first choice for everyone to access all kinds of information, the use of unethical optimisation techniques must be viewed from the perspective of “preventing people’s access to correct information”. Here, I am of the opinion that it cannot be accepted that the relevant result appears not only on the first page but also on the second page, which “cannot be considered as preventing access to information”. Because, when it is accepted that harmful SEO methods are applied by each website, it will be impossible to access websites that offer honest and accurate information without resorting to such techniques, with a random search without a direct link. However, the right to access and receive information includes the right to access accurate information within a reasonable time. When the case is approached from this perspective, it is mainly due to the constant application of such methods, with the exception of the provisions of the law protecting rival companies against unfair competition and certain intellectual property rights violations, and the sanctions imposed on the relevant websites by search engines, and “preventing access to accurate and honest information within a reasonable period of time”. it is seen that any other sanction is not included in our legislation yet.

Violation of Brand Rights of Undertakings with SEO

A website’s being at the top of searches for another company’s brand, domain name, company’s title with some SEO methods applied; If users are misled by being redirected to another over-optimized website in their searches for another brand or title, trademark infringement may come to the fore. Because, in accordance with the Industrial Property Law No. 6769 (“SMK”), the rights arising from the trademark registration belong exclusively to the trademark owner. Pursuant to Article 7 of the SMK, (a) the use of any sign that is the same as the registered trademark of a person, in the goods or services covered by the registration, (b) the same or similar goods or services that are the same or similar to the registered trademark and covered by the registered trademark. The use of any sign that covers goods or services and is therefore likely to be confused by the public, including the possibility of being associated with a registered trademark, In the event that any sign that will gain an unfair advantage from the brand’s reputation or harm its reputation or damage its distinctive character due to its well-known level, is used without a justifiable reason, the trademark owner has the right to prevent all kinds of unfair and unlawful use in this context.

In subparagraph (d) of the fourth paragraph of Article 7 of the SMK, it is stated that “the person using the sign of another person in the trade area does not have a right or a legitimate connection with regard to the use of the sign, provided that the same or similar sign is a domain name, routing code, key, in a way that will create a commercial effect on the internet. use of words or similar forms” is also specified as unfair and unauthorized use of the trademark, and in this context, the right holder has the right to demand the determination of the unfair use, its immediate suspension, termination and damages suffered.

Using the trademark without the permission of the owner with SEO methods and unfairly benefiting from the level of recognition of the brand can often occur in the form of determining the brand belonging to the third party or rival enterprise as a keyword on the website, using it as a hidden text on the site or writing it as a meta tag.

In fact, trademark violations occur most frequently with the search engine marketing (SEM) methods mentioned above. Keyword ads that are triggered by keywords, or most commonly known as the “adword” ad system, are applied on behalf of websites that are placed at the bottom of the search results list or that trigger ads, even if the search is made with the words they are related to or contain. It is an auction advertising system. [9] With AdWords, websites can gain a place in the words they have determined, with the cost-per-click system, for the advertisement areas determined by the search engine. [10] Keyword ads are one of the most infringing ad types; Because sometimes, businesses may link to their own websites by using the name of the competitor company in order to mislead the customers of the competing undertakings or to manipulate the users who are looking for a certain product or service. [11] In this context, a word, a sign or a phrase determined by a website in order to gain a visible place with adwords; In case of another company’s brand, title, domain, trademark infringement and unfair competition may come to the fore. Regarding trademark infringement via Google Adwords, the decision of the 11th Civil Chamber of the Supreme Court of Appeals, numbered 2012/12304, 2013/14141, can be given as an example:

“The court; According to the collected evidence, the expert reports received and the scope of the entire file; the defendant’s side, when the defendant’s name www.i….com in the system named Google adwords in the Google search engine is clicked and the word promena is searched, the defendant’s advertisement site is reached, the phrase promena is a registered trademark for the plaintiff, and the consumers who are computer users, because the plaintiff and the defendant are engaged in the same field. It has been DECIDED that the case be accepted on the grounds that there will be confusion and therefore confusion due to the plaintiff’s access to the defendant’s website and advertisements with his trademark, and in this case, the plaintiff’s trademark has been unfairly used by the defendant and infringed the trademark.

The defendant’s attorney appealed the decision. (…)

CONCLUSION: For the reasons explained above, all the objections of the defendant’s attorney are rejected and the verdict found in accordance with the procedure and law is APPROVED.

Many trademark lawsuits involving websites result from the use of brands in advertised keywords; When a word purchased for advertising purposes is searched in a search engine, the company that owns the said keyword appears first, whereas the company that owns the brand may appear after the results in the first three lines. [12] Because, for example, when you type “phone”, it is usual for the “Apple” brand to appear, and it is possible for the search engine to rank at the top with its own algorithm, even if there is no adwords. However, when you type “Apple”, the listing of the “Lenovo” brand before “Apple” is not the usual result of the search engine algorithm, but by “Lenovo” advertising the “Apple” brand with adwords.

According to the working principle of the Google AdWords system, as a result of the search made by the user, the links and advertisements of the website of the company/person that advertised are displayed by paying a certain fee for the words in the relevant search; Because these are not displayed like the usual ads, they are listed like the search results that the search engine finds with its natural algorithm, so it is difficult to distinguish it as an advertisement. Then, the actual results reached by the search engine’s own algorithm are listed. The Google AdWords system does not make any control over whether the words or phrases advertised by the advertisers are a brand, title or domain belonging to another person or company, and they do not have any rights on the relevant brand, or perhaps even in the products and services it offers. it allows companies that do not use this brand in concrete terms to advertise a word that constitutes another’s brand or title, and when these words are searched, the links belonging to the advertiser company appear in the top ranks. These Google-supported links can be listed even before the page of the original right holder in the search results.

As an example, in the decision of the 11th Civil Chamber of the Court of Cassation No. 2013/3630 Main, Decision 2014/10378,

“… “C……” brands are registered in the name of the plaintiff for 02 and 35 class goods and services, the trademark with the phrase “BK Bitmeyer Kartuş” is also registered on behalf of the defendant for the same class of goods and services, the parties operate in the same field, the defendant, the trademark “C..” registered in the name of the plaintiff is determined as a keyword, provided that the meta-taging method is used in the source coding of Google Adwords advertisements and their web addresses, and thus, by any person through the Google search engine with the trademark “c..” belonging to the plaintiff. their website www. Endless cartridge. com. tr. and www.g…com, the plaintiff’s www.c…com or www.c… com.tr. It is determined that the sales of the products belonging to the plaintiff are carried out from the websites of the plaintiff, it is not possible to prevent the use of a general concept that can be used by everyone who advertises in AdWords advertising applications, or a concept related to their own business, but despite the existence of wide freedom, the brands, trade names or well-known features of the competitor companies are not used as keywords. It is not possible to talk about an honest use here, the defendant’s action constitutes unfair competition, the plaintiff’s trademark rights are violated, and the material and moral damages are determined by the defendant through Google Adwords ads. By using the source code of the k…com.tr website as a meta-tag, the defendant party’s violation of trademark rights and the prohibition of unfair competition, and the collection of 2,000,00 TL pecuniary damages and 3,000,00 TL non-pecuniary damages…”

form has been decided.

However, undertakings may not always commit the said trademark infringement through AdWords. If the title, brand or domain name of another company is determined as a meta tag on a website, users may be directed primarily to another completely unrelated website, even if it has no relation to the relevant brand or title.

The unfair use of trademarks by undertakings is not limited to those here. There are many methods applied to interfere with the algorithm of the search engine. It can also be mentioned that the trademark right is violated by placing a brand or title belonging to another enterprise in different combinations on the website with the cloaking system. Because here, the recognition of another brand is used and users are manipulated.

Copyright Violation with SEO

Although trademark infringement has been comprehensively explained above, it is also possible to violate copyright with unfair optimisation methods. A third party copyrighted material; Of course, if it is determined as a directory of keywords or meta tags, modified via article spinning software and placed on the website, partially or completely copied and pasted on another website, embedded in another content or written as hidden text. As a result, it can be said that the copyright has been violated and the detection, suspension, removal and compensation cases of the infringement can be asserted.

Unfair Competition with SEO

Another institution that is most frequently used due to illegal SEO techniques of undertakings is unfair competition. A company whose trademark, title or domain name is used unfairly may file an unfair competition lawsuit against the company that makes unfair use, and unfair competition provisions may come to the fore without any trademark infringement. In particular, unfair competition provisions find applications because the selected keywords or meta tags cause confusion with third parties websites and mislead and manipulate users by creating a different impression on the referred website.

In an example of this situation, in a case subject to the Supreme Court decision, when the trademark owner searched for his brand on Google, he stated that as a result of the search, the website of the defendant appeared in the first place both as an advertisement under the title of “promotional” and in the search results before the plaintiff, and demanded that unfair competition be stopped with trademark infringement. . According to the court, “if the brand is used by someone else, the brand owner has the power to prevent, the brands can be confused by the user with mediocre attention, intelligence and knowledge, the advertising style in the event is against the principles of honest competition, the competitor company’s brand, trade name or slogans are not used as keywords. It has affirmed the decision of the local court, which decided to accept the case and to prevent the use of the plaintiff’s trademarks as keywords by the defendant and the prevention of redirecting and sponsored links to the defendant’s websites in search engines.

Search Engine Sanctions

Although black hat SEO methods can be applied directly upon the request of the companies, they can also be applied by the SEO service providers, who are completely unaware of these methods and have made an agreement only to receive optimisation services, especially in order to obtain a success bonus. While search engines support site optimisations that can help their search, crawling and analysis, they prohibit unethical optimisations that will mislead their algorithms and specify activities within the prohibited scope in their guidelines and guidelines.

An example of this is the lawsuit filed by Seikaly & Stewart against The Rainmaker on July 13, 2013. [14] Seikaly & Stewart, a law firm; The Rainmaker, on the other hand, is a marketing firm that focuses on “finding clients for small and medium-sized law firms and increasing their revenue faster”. According to the claims of Seikaly & Stewart, The Rainmaker, in a seminar it organized in 2011, stated that by promoting their blogging and link building capabilities, they created an easily accessible internet view for their clients, by analyzing the websites of the participants, the rankings were low, and the development to be presented by them. indicated that they needed techniques. Thereupon, a service contract was signed between Seikaly & Stewart and The Rainmaker for “blog writing, social media and link building” services with a total cost of 45,000.00 USD.

Seikaly & Stewart, in her complaint, stated that automated processing methods were used by The Rainmaker, that the derived links are meaningless, that they are of poor quality and unusable, that they generate more than two thousand links that direct users to their client’s site with the automatic content and link generation program, and that all these links they use are used by The Rainmaker. He claimed that the methods were misled that they were positive optimisation techniques, whereas The Rainmaker used these optimisation techniques even though it was known that all these optimisation techniques were unethical and prohibited in Google policies and guidelines.

Search engines may restrict or prohibit certain optimisation techniques in their guidelines and regulations. In particular, Google is improving its algorithms day by day so that it can easily detect spam links, unethically optimized websites, automatic link and content-generating programs and extensions that contain meaningless content. For example, Google’s “Panda” algorithm, updated in 2011, can detect websites that contain duplicated content and low-quality text (for example, a string of repetitive words, text with the same words that have been replaced). “Penguin”, which was updated in 2012, can detect websites that give links against the usual flow of life. In this way, Google detects and blacklists websites that are unethically optimized and cause user manipulation. It is not possible for a website blacklisted by Google to rank in search results before the fifth page again for years, even if it contains the most relevant content for search.


The fact that websites that are optimized with unethical methods are subject to lawsuits on the one hand and Google sanctions on the other, can cause great economic damage for website owners. Because it is close to impossible for a blacklisted website to be listed in the top results again, a separate financial investment will be required to purchase a website again and to provide the relevant service again in order to optimize it positively. In addition to such financial losses, accusations that a company is unfairly competitive, advertising and promotional activities are carried out against the rules of honesty, and trademark and copyrights are violated can sometimes result in moral losses that are even more severe than financial losses. For all these reasons, companies need to ensure that they provide the necessary contractual provisions and the necessary material and moral protection and guarantee in the agreement processes with the companies they receive optimisation services, and they should continue to make the necessary controls on their websites with their own control mechanisms as long as the service procurement continues. required. However, if the undertakings are aware that their competitors may resort to such unethical optimisation techniques, the necessary investigations are carried out on the search engines at regular intervals by the undertakings and it is determined that any unfair competition or violation of intellectual property rights, what kind of claim and lawsuit rights are available. It is important that they know.


  1. Goldman, supra note 11; Mustafa Aydemir, SEO, 2014
  2. Mustafa Aydemir, SEO, 2014
  3. Dr. Güzide Soydemir, Preventing Unfair Competition on the Internet, 2015, p.111; Can/Memiş, p.19
  4. Raymundo Rayes, Arizona Bar Law Review, The Legal Obligations of Search Engine Optimization Firms, p.1119; Victoria Edwards, SEO Basics: 8 Essentials When Optimizing Your Site, SEARCH ENGINE WATCH (Dec. 31, 2013).
  5. Steps to a Google-Friendly Site, GOOGLE
  6. Link Schemes, GOOGL
  7. Allison Halter, 5 Tips to Achieve Alignment Between SEO Keyword Strategy & Content, SEARCH ENGINE LAND (Sept. 9, 2009), http://searchengineland.com/5-tips-toachieve-alignment-between-seo-keyword- strategy-content-2543
  8. Google-Friendly Site, supra note 19; Beginner’s Guide to SEO, supra note 11; Link Schemes, supra note 22
  9. Amir Efrati, Google Penalizes Overstock for Search Tactics, WALL ST. J. (Feb. 24, 2011, 12:01 AM), http://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748704520504576162753779521700?mg=reno64wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB100014240452748704 76162753779521700.htht; Raymundo Rayes, Arizona Bar Law Review, The Legal Obligations of Search Engine Optimization Firms, p.1119
  10. İrfan Akın “Adword Advertisement System”, Ankara Bar Association, Journal of Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Y.9, C.9, S.1, Ankara 2009, p.33 et al.
  11. Assist. Assoc. Dr. Neval Okan, Network Advertisements and Unfair Competition p.9
  12. See. Footnote 11, p.86
  13. See. Footnote 11, p.125
  14. Complaint at 1, Seikaly & Stewart, P.C. v. Fairley, no. 2:13-cv-01502-MHB (D. Ariz. July 24, 2014) [hereinafter Complaint]; About Us, RAINMAKER INST., http://www.therainmakerinstitute.com/aboutus.html

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